This list was made in cooperation with Saga Briggs.
Originally discovered in 1956 and approved in the US in 1970, ketamine is primarily used for anesthesia. Additionally, ketamine is also being applied for various mental illnesses, including major depressive disorder and treatment-resistant depression. The most often used form of ketamine is racemic ketamine with 50% of S-ketamine and R-ketamine. In 2019, the FDA approved Spravato, a nasal spray containing isolated S-ketamine (esketamine) for the treatment of depression and (in 2020) suicide ideation. Ketamine infusion treatment for depression is standard in many university hospitals. Ketamine-assisted psychotherapy (KAP) using the psychedelic states of consciousness that ketamine may induce is still rare in most of Europe. The OVID Clinic in Berlin-Friedrichshain provides such combination therapy.
Following are press articles discussing the therapeutic use of ketamine in mental health treatments and its potential modes of action.