Please register HERE.

The APT – Augmented Psychotherapy Training is a major professional training course on the platform of the MIND Foundation’s Academy. This online info meetup on ZOOM will provide you with ADDITIONAL information and help to answer questions after you have read the program description on the MIND Website (we strongly recommend reading the FAQs, too).
The APT training will provide you with the knowledge and skills to use legally available tools to augment your psychotherapeutic practice today – and get ready for new psychedelic pharmaceuticals that will be available in a few years, if studies deliver on their promise.
The meetup will be moderated by one or two people from the training faculty. You are very welcomed to ask your questions!

APT is an advanced training course for medical doctors, psychotherapists, and complementary mental health professionals.

Please register HERE.


Bitte hier registrieren

Das APT – Augmented Psychotherapy Training ist eine professionelle Weiterbildung der MIND Academy. Dieses Online-Meetup auf ZOOM bietet Ihnen ZUSÄTZLICHE Informationen und hilft bei der Beantwortung von Fragen, nachdem Sie die Programmbeschreibung auf der MIND-Website gelesen haben (wir empfehlen dringend, auch die FAQs zu lesen). Wir arbeiten daran diese Beschreibung auch ins Deutsche zu übersetzen.
Das APT-Training wird Sie mit dem Wissen und den Fähigkeiten ausstatten, legal verfügbare Werkzeuge zur Erweiterung (“Augmentierung”) Ihre psychotherapeutischen Praxis zu zu nutzen. Sie lernen mit dem atypischen Psychedelikum Ketamin einen psychotherapeutischen Prozess zu gestalten – und sich auf die neuen psychedelische Arzneimittel vorzubereiten, die in einigen Jahren verfügbar sein werden, wenn die laufenden Studien ihre Versprechen halten.
Das Meetup wird von ein oder zwei Personen aus dem Ausbildungsteam moderiert. Sie sind herzlich willkommen, Ihre Fragen zu stellen!

APT ist eine Weiterbildung für Mediziner, Psychotherapeuten und komplementärmedizinische Heilberufe.

Bitte hier registrieren

 blog-treated_ChrisLetheby (1)  blog-treated_ChrisLetheby (1)

Merging Biology and Psychotherapy Within Psychiatry

An Interview with Collin Reiff, MD

  • Blog
  • Science
  • Interview
  • 8 minutes
May 13, 2022
Share

While psychedelics try to find their place within psychiatry, psychiatry is still trying to find its place in society. 

In the MIND Bioblog series, we present personalities who have influenced the development of psychedelic therapy, research, and the culture surrounding the psychedelic experience. Collin Reiff, MD, is an assistant professor of psychiatry at the New York University Grossman School of Medicine, where he specializes in treating trauma and substance use disorders in the Steven A. Cohen Military Family Clinic. He has co-authored numerous book chapters and peer reviewed publications on psychedelic compounds. His first author publication, Psychedelics and Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy, which he wrote with the Work Group on Biomarkers and Novel Treatments, a Division of the American Psychiatric Association Council of Research, was recently published in The American Journal of Psychiatry. The following conversation covers Reiff’s thoughts on the psychedelic renaissance as it pertains to psychiatry.

 

Saga Briggs: Some like to say psychiatry has not progressed as a field of medicine relative to others for decades, and that psychedelics could do for psychiatry what the microscope did for biology. Do you feel like this is a fair assessment?

Collin Reiff: Psychiatry is different from other specialties within medicine in that there’s still a lot we don’t know about the mind and the brain and how it works. It started out originally with anatomy back in the late 1800s. In time, it evolved into psychotherapy. Then it went back to anatomy and biology. Egas Moniz won the Nobel Prize for the lobotomy, thinking that changing the anatomy and structures of the brain would have an impact on the mind. Now we think, “That was a horrible thing, how could we do that?” Then things went in the direction of psychotherapy. In the eighties and nineties, it went back towards biology again, with this idea of neurotransmitters working on certain receptors, and not having enough of one neurotransmitter in the brain or too much of another leading to depression or psychosis. Parts of that are true. In and of itself, though, it is a little reductionistic.

But if you think about it, psychiatry involves a lot of things we’re not talking about, which I think are easy to glance over, such as do we have meaning and purpose in life? I don’t think many diagnostic assessments ask about that. Do we think about the history of the world and what needs of humankind are being met at a specific time and how they’re changing? Is there a reason we see so many people getting diagnosed with ADHD today? Is it because of the pressures that are put on people to sit down at a desk and work at a computer for long hours? I think we are seeing more diagnoses because more people are saying, “Hey, I’m having a hard time adapting to a world that is ever changing at faster speeds.” We might think of psychiatry as a practice that eases people’s suffering, allows people to lead lives that are more fulfilling and more in harmony with their desires, and helps tune the mind. Psychiatry is evolving with society. I’m excited to learn what psychedelics will teach us about our minds.

SB: How are psychedelics playing into this currently? Do you see them encouraging us to pay closer attention to some of these deeper questions within psychiatry and medicine more generally?

CR: I don’t think we necessarily have the measures to capture what’s happening right now. We are forcing psychedelics into measures that might not be capturing the full psychedelic experience, and its benefits and risks. In a way, psychedelics are going to force psychiatry and psychology to evolve. Whenever you’re kind of stuck with, “Hey, we’re not sure what’s happening,” it’s prudent to observe. I’m always struck that our depression inventories in psychiatry–the PHQ-9, BDI, HAM-D, and MADRS–don’t ask about patients having meaning, purpose, or structure in life. The question is, do psychedelics have a place in psychiatry and medicine? For a select group of patients, they might. The evidence right now suggests that MDMA does serve a purpose for the treatment of PTSD. Psilocybin appears to be helpful for people who struggle with depression, existential distress around chronic illness, substance use disorders, and burnout and demoralization. By no means does this mean that everyone should be taking psychedelics.

SB: How exactly do you see psychiatry evolving, perhaps with the help of psychedelics? 

CR: It may be useful to think about psychiatry historically, in terms of treatments that are perhaps not “psychiatric” in nature. Take the Turkish bath, for example, where you’re heating up the body. There’s evidence that a hyperthermic experience can elevate someone’s mood. That’s probably why saunas and Turkish baths have persisted for so many years in Europe and the Middle East. If we look at something like meditation: does it treat depression? I don’t know, but there’s a reason it has existed for so long. The same could be said for psychedelics, which were used in shamanic practice in Central and South America, and in Africa. They have an impact on the mind, but there’s also a physiological component. I very much believe there is a mind-body connection. I don’t know if we pay enough attention to the body in psychiatry; we tend to focus on the mind. If you look at an illness such as bipolar I disorder, for instance, you see that, when someone is in mania, they tend to have increased energy. Sometimes people can do a physical exercise beyond what is considered normal for them. People can go extended periods of time without sleeping. The mind is driving a physical response. They’re connected. I’m saying this because I think psychiatry in general could benefit from zooming out more, and in my opinion pay more attention to history. Thinking of it simply as neurotransmitters is reductionistic. We did that in the nineties. SSRIs haven’t proven to be nearly as effective as we thought they would be. They work for some people, but they didn’t solve the problem and we’re still trying to figure it out today. So why not explore psychedelics with curiosity?

SB: Though we could be saying the same thing about psychedelics in a decade or two as well…

CR: True, there’s a psychedelic exuberance right now. And this is human nature, to put something on a pedestal. Then what we do is, in time, we knock it off the pedestal. Realistically, with psychedelics, we’re going to find a middle ground. I believe that. They’re going to be effective for some things and probably not for other things, and there probably will be contraindications in time. Very rarely is it that the one thing works for everybody. That’s a red flag–if there’s one “panacea” that works for every ailment. My guess is they’re going to end up being efficacious for certain ailments in psychiatry and medicine.

SB: How important do you think it is to understand the mechanisms underlying that efficacy?  

CR: Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that psychedelics are correlated with enhanced cognitive flexibility. There is really exciting work happening and it’s as if pieces of the puzzle are slowly coming together. Enhancing our understanding of neuroscience is very important, but for me right now, it’s more about figuring out if these compounds can improve and prolong people’s lives. Something that is a big restraining force for psychedelics right now is that there’s not a universally accepted approach to psychotherapy. A lot of what’s happening in psychotherapy now is non-directive, which is based on therapies that were used in the 1960s. That approach seems to work…

SB: But there’s no basis for comparison. 

CR: Exactly. What would happen if we tried different approaches? What would happen if you gave them MDMA with prolonged exposure therapy or put it in the framework of a psychodynamic or psychoanalytic treatment where someone takes one of these compounds several times a year throughout their treatment with the therapist they’re doing ongoing work with? And what happens if we use these compounds to enhance already established evidence-based psychotherapies? Can we use them as catalyst for psychotherapy? I’m wondering what these therapies are going to look like if and when they become available to the general public. Maybe psychedelics are just a part of treatment for some people.

SB: Do you think there’s a risk of psychedelics leading us toward a more reductionist understanding of diagnosis?

CR: We’re not getting more reductionist. We’re getting more sophisticated. We’re asking questions. We’re curious. These compounds are making us ask questions about how the mind is working, about neuroscience, about our treatments…

SB: I think the thinking behind the question was in terms of where we’re placing the focus. For example, when we hear psychedelics may work to treat not only PTSD but also substance use disorder, we tend to think, “There must be something special about psychedelics” rather than “What’s the connection between PTSD and substance use disorders?” Obviously, you know there is a connection. But this isn’t necessarily the message being conveyed to the general population. 

CR: Neuroimaging studies by Robin Carhart-Harris et al. suggest that psychedelics enhance connectivity in certain regions of the brain during a psilocybin session, and for up to three weeks after. They are working via a different mechanism of action than SSRI’s. From a neuroimaging perspective, this is part of what’s special about psychedelics, and this might explain why they are considered “universal amplifiers” by Stanislav Grof.

One of the biggest challenges that limits care in psychotherapy and psychiatry is that quality care is often time and labor intensive. It requires listening and working with a patient to figure out what isn’t working in their life. And then to come up with a plan on how to resolve the conflict, negative cognitions, or feelings. Part of what makes psychedelics interesting and important is that they can alter perception in a way that enhances curiosity and opens psychic boundaries. From a Systems-centered perspective, they can help a patient get out of survivor role and enter explorer role relatively quickly. Also, if we look at them through a psychoanalytic lens, we might say they lower resistance and allow the patient to explore challenging thoughts or feelings that are normally repressed or suppressed. For example, they can allow guilt or shame to surface from the undercurrent of the mind, and be processed relatively quickly. Psychedelics also seem to facilitate transference, which is a key principle used in psychotherapy. It’s paramount in psychoanalysis, and dynamic treatments. This also means that therapists should be well trained and have impeccable boundaries so that no boundary violations occur.

SB: So while some aspects of this therapy might be more efficient, other aspects will require even greater attention and care, and potentially place an even greater emphasis on the individual.

CR: In a way, we might say that psychedelics allow psychiatry to be incredibly individualized. If you think about psychoanalysis, it was a treatment designed for well-to-do or affluent men in Europe. It was really not accessible to most. Anti-depressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics have provided treatment for depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and psychosis. They can be very helpful and have helped psychiatry evolve while improving the lives of many people. With that said, we need to continue evolving, and we should remain curious. I’m guessing in time psychedelics are going to have an important place in medicine and psychiatry.

Please register HERE.

Caution: This event is scheduled for UTC – 8:00 / PDT (Los Angeles, US).

The APT – Augmented Psychotherapy Training is a major professional training course on the platform of the MIND Foundation’s Academy. This online info meetup on ZOOM will provide you with ADDITIONAL information and help to answer questions after you have read the program description on the MIND Website (we strongly recommend reading the FAQs, too).
The APT training will provide you with the knowledge and skills to use legally available tools to augment your psychotherapeutic practice today – and get ready for new psychedelic pharmaceuticals that will be available in a few years, if studies deliver on their promise.
The meetup will be moderated by one or two people from the training faculty. You are very welcome to ask questions!

APT is an advanced training course for medical doctors, psychotherapists, and complementary mental health professionals.

Please register HERE.

Please register HERE.

The APT – Augmented Psychotherapy Training is a major professional training course on the platform of the MIND Foundation’s Academy. This online info meetup on ZOOM will provide you with ADDITIONAL information and help to answer questions after you have read the program description on the MIND Website (we strongly recommend reading the FAQs, too).
The APT training will provide you with the knowledge and skills to use legally available tools to augment your psychotherapeutic practice today – and get ready for new psychedelic pharmaceuticals that will be available in a few years, if studies deliver on their promise.
The meetup will be moderated by one or two people from the training faculty. You are very welcome to ask questions!

APT is an advanced training course for medical doctors, psychotherapists, and complementary mental health professionals.

Please register HERE.


Bitte hier registrieren

Das APT – Augmented Psychotherapy Training ist eine professionelle Weiterbildung der MIND Academy. Dieses Online-Meetup auf ZOOM bietet Ihnen ZUSÄTZLICHE Informationen und hilft bei der Beantwortung von Fragen, nachdem Sie die Programmbeschreibung auf der MIND-Website gelesen haben (wir empfehlen dringend, auch die FAQs zu lesen). Wir arbeiten daran diese Beschreibung auch ins Deutsche zu übersetzen.
Das APT-Training wird Sie mit dem Wissen und den Fähigkeiten ausstatten, legal verfügbare Werkzeuge zur Erweiterung (“Augmentierung”) Ihre psychotherapeutischen Praxis zu zu nutzen. Sie lernen mit dem atypischen Psychedelikum Ketamin einen psychotherapeutischen Prozess zu gestalten – und sich auf die neuen psychedelische Arzneimittel vorzubereiten, die in einigen Jahren verfügbar sein werden, wenn die laufenden Studien ihre Versprechen halten.
Das Meetup wird von ein oder zwei Personen aus dem Ausbildungsteam moderiert. Sie sind herzlich willkommen, Ihre Fragen zu stellen!

APT ist eine Weiterbildung für Mediziner, Psychotherapeuten und komplementärmedizinische Heilberufe.

Bitte hier registrieren

uniMIND Symposium 2022 – Program Booklet

PBL Material

The Department of Psychopharmacology at Maastricht University, uniMIND Maastricht, and the MIND Foundation invite you to the uniMIND Symposium 2022 on April 9th at the SBE Aula in Maastricht, NL, and via livestream.

This year’s symposium discussions revolve around Synergies and Crossroads in Psychedelic Research and Therapy. The program contains excellent academic presentations, interactive group discussions, and still more: as a direct result of the discussions phase (organized as a PBL-session), each group will assign a representative to partake in a panel discussion.

Online participation is entirely free. On-site attendance is limited to 150 tickets that cost 10 Euros. All funds are used exclusively in support of the event.

 

To attend online, please register via the form below

Online Participation (Form)

* * * * *

 blog-treated_ChrisLetheby (1)  blog-treated_ChrisLetheby (1)

Revising the Self

Beyond Metaphysical Beliefs in Mystical-Type Experience

  • Blog
  • Essay
  • 7 minutes
March 18, 2022
Share

Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Western Australia and Postdoctoral Researcher at the University of Adelaide

Dr Chris Letheby is a Lecturer in Philosophy at The University of Western Australia who specializes in the philosophy of mind and cognition.

View full profile ››

Psychedelic-induced mystical-type experiences may be therapeutic “not primarily because they change people’s beliefs about the ultimate nature of reality, but because they enable people to revise their self-conceptions in healthier ways, changing how they see themselves and how they relate to their own minds and lives.”

Recent clinical trials suggest that one to three supervised psychedelic sessions can durably reduce symptoms of anxiety, depression, and addiction.1 As Stephen Ross said, it is “simply unprecedented in psychiatry that a single dose of a medicine produces these kinds of dramatic and enduring results.”2 Assuming that this is a real and robust effect, the obvious question is: how does it work?

To this obvious question, there is a seemingly obvious answer: it works by changing patients’ beliefs about the nature of reality. This answer, which I call the Metaphysical Belief Theory of psychedelic therapy,3 seems obvious in light of one of the most consistent findings in psychedelic research: that lasting psychological benefits (reductions in psychiatric symptoms, or positive personality change in healthy volunteers) are predicted by the occurrence of a “mystical-type experience” (MTE) during drug action. 3

In light of this finding, and an intuitive association between mysticism and religious belief, it is natural to speculate that psychedelics cause lasting psychological benefits by promoting uplifting metaphysical beliefs in a transcendent “Divine Reality” or “Ground of Being”— what Alan Watts called a “Joyous Cosmology.”4 This speculation has caused concern among those partial to a physicalist, materialist, or naturalist worldview, including Michael Pollan, who wondered: “Is psychedelic therapy simply foisting a comforting delusion on the sick and dying?”5 I think that the answer is “no,” and that this view does not accurately portray the underlying cause of psychedelics’ therapeutic benefits. A more plausible explanation, in my view, focuses on changes to the narrative self.

Mystical-Type Experience Without Metaphysical Conversion

Psychometric questionnaires define the MTE in terms of a set of experiential features. These include a sense of unity, transcendence of time and space, a “noetic” feeling of gaining knowledge about reality, and a deeply felt positive mood.6 Again and again, across multiple studies and populations, the volunteers who tick the boxes for this type of experience are those who experience the greatest lasting benefits.

The Joyous Cosmology view, AKA the Metaphysical Belief Theory of psychedelic therapy, is prompted partly by psychometric findings such as these. But there is other evidence too. As Wayne Glausser7 has noted, this idea seems to be suggested by the first-person accounts of some patients, such as Rachael Petersen, who wrote that receiving psilocybin in a clinical trial for depression “cured [her] of [her] atheism.”8 The theory is especially tempting when we consider the best-studied therapeutic indication of psychedelics: the treatment of anxiety and depression accompanying terminal illness. Clearly, an experientially-backed conviction in the existence of an eternal, transcendent realm could provide significant comfort to those deeply distressed by their own imminent mortality.

While psychedelics do sometimes instill metaphysical beliefs in a Joyous Cosmology, and it would be hard to deny that this has psychological benefits when it occurs,9 qualitative interviews with successfully treated patients reveal a more nuanced picture, showing that some can tick all the psychometric boxes for a “complete” MTE without undergoing any metaphysical conversion.10 Instead, these criteria can sometimes be satisfied by transformative experiences featuring profound feelings of connectedness, acceptance, emotional catharsis, and psychological insight—with no Joyous Cosmology in sight.11 A good example of this is furnished by Michael Pollan’s own psilocybin-induced experience, which satisfied the definition of a complete MTE:

“I could easily confirm the ‘fusion of [my] personal self into a larger whole’, as well as the ‘feeling that [I] experienced something profoundly sacred and holy’ and ‘of being at a spiritual height’ and even the ‘experience of unity with ultimate reality’… provided, that is, my endorsement of those loaded adjectives doesn’t imply any belief in a supernatural reality … It had been my objective to have [a mystical experience], and at least according to the scientists a mystical experience I had had. Yet it had brought me no closer to a belief in God or in a cosmic form of consciousness or in anything magical at all.”12

So, how does psychedelic therapy work, if not (mainly) by changing metaphysical beliefs? In my view, the reason the MTE—as psychometrically defined—is so consistently therapeutic is because it facilitates profound changes to the “narrative self.”

Psychedelics and the Narrative Self

The term “narrative self” refers to the complex set of beliefs and representations a person has of their own identity, personality, and autobiography. It is standardly distinguished from the “minimal self,” the mere feeling of being an embodied subject of experience in the here and now, irrespective of any specific personality traits or biographical features. 

Why think that changes to the narrative self are the real story underlying the correlation between MTEs and therapeutic outcomes? For one thing, the sense of unity is regarded as the cardinal feature of the MTE, and a corollary of this is a profound disruption to the ordinary sense of self.13 For another, it is known that conditions such as addiction and depression feature deleterious changes to the narrative self, such as negative “core beliefs” about oneself, and that changing these can be therapeutically beneficial.14,15 

Besides these general considerations, there is evidence from psychedelic science that supports this hypothesis. At least one study has found that measures of psychological insight predict therapeutic outcomes more strongly than measures of MTE, and the relevant types of insights almost all involve changes to the narrative self.16 Therapeutic effects have also been linked to increased mindfulness-related capacities17 and psychological flexibility,14  both of which involve changes to the felt relationship between the experiencing subject and their own thoughts and feelings—including the thoughts and feelings that comprise the narrative self.3  The apparent involvement of changes to the Default Mode Network in the brain is important, too, since this system is implicated in narrative self-representations by a large body of evidence.18  

Finally, many reports from successfully-treated patients fit well with this idea. Consider, for example, the following report by someone who received psilocybin-assisted therapy for tobacco addiction: 

“For a few seconds, it was just like ‘I’m me, and there are no defining characteristics!’ . . . that made me realise that I’m not a ‘smoker’.”19 

It seems clear, at least in this case — and there are many examples like this — that part of what psilocybin has done is free the patient from the grip of the core belief that “I am a smoker,” enabling them to see the contingency of this belief and revise it for the better. This is consistent with the idea that psychedelic-induced MTEs are therapeutic, not primarily because they change people’s beliefs about the ultimate nature of reality, but because they enable people to revise their self-conceptions in healthier ways, changing how they see themselves and how they relate to their own minds and lives.20

The Narrative Self vs. Minimal Self

Why single out the narrative self, as opposed to the minimal self, in trying to understand the therapeutic process? In part, this depends on exactly how one characterizes and distinguishes the two phenomena. Drawing this distinction more clearly in relation to psychedelic therapy could be an important topic for future research. On the one hand, the minimal self is often linked to, or identified with, some form(s) of bodily self-awareness, and clearly changes to bodily self-awareness can be involved in psychedelic therapy. On the other hand, parts of the narrative or autobiographical self can include, or make reference to the body. Indeed, as I have defined the narrative self here, it includes anything that goes beyond the mere sense of being a subject of experience, to identify one as a specific individual – and this includes representations of the appearance, history, and significance of one’s body. 

It may be that some of our current conceptual schemes do not map neatly onto the psychological realities here. But while the acute psychedelic experience, like psychotic states, can feature definite changes to minimal self-awareness – dissolution of bodily boundaries, and the loss of a sense of “ownership” over mental states and bodily parts – these typically subside with the acute effects of the drug. What can be changed dramatically and durably, in successful cases, is not the mere sense of “being someone”21 in the here and now, but the sense of who one is — which (kind of) someone — and how one relates to the thoughts, feelings, perceptions, objects, people, and situations in one’s life.  

Terminal Illness and the Narrative Self

There is one lingering worry to address. Perhaps, one might think, the mechanism of disrupting and revising the narrative self is plausible when it comes to depression or substance use disorders – but can this really be the main mechanism for psychological distress in terminal illness? As I noted above, this is the use for which the Metaphysical Belief Theory seems most plausible. It is hard to see at first glance how changing the narrative self could alleviate anxiety and depression brought on by impending mortality. Here, however, it is important to appreciate just how deeply our narrative self-representations pervade our experience of the world, via their influence on attention, emotion, and perception. 

In Switzerland, a team led by Peter Gasser conducted the first clinical trial of LSD-assisted psychotherapy in 40 years.22 The population? Patients with anxiety and depression relating to a terminal illness. LSD-induced experiences led to lasting reductions in anxiety and depression, but the researchers noted that patients typically underwent emotionally- and existentially-oriented “peak” experiences, rather than classical mystical experiences or metaphysical epiphanies. The main themes that emerged from qualitative interviews with patients about their psychedelic experiences were “facilitated access to emotions and catharsis,” “de-schematizing and viewing experiences in another perspective”, and “changes of basic emotions.”23 One patient commented: 

“I had the opportunity to relax. I rather connected to my inner world. Closed eyes. It was less about my illness. I was able to put it into perspective … Not to see oneself with one’s sickness as centre. There are more important things in life … The evolution of humankind for example … Your Inner Ego gets diminished, I believe, and you are looking at the whole … you are indeed starting to build relations with plants or with the entire living world around. You think less about yourself, you are thinking – across borders.” 

This is just one example, of course, but it provides a proof-of-concept that apparent encounters with a “Divine Reality” are not necessary to cope with impending death. Instead, the existential distress attendant on imminent mortality might be reduced by profound changes to the narrative self, and to the perspectives, priorities, and patterns of emotion and attention that it underpins. 

Learn more in Chris Letheby’s recently published book: Philosophy of Psychedelics.

References

  1. Andersen, K.A., Carhart‐Harris, R., Nutt, D.J. and Erritzoe, D., 2021. Therapeutic effects of classic serotonergic psychedelics: A systematic review of modern‐era clinical studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica143(2), pp.101-118.
  2. Quoted in Schiffman, R., 2016. Psilocybin: a journey beyond the fear of death? Scientific American. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/psilocybin-a-journey-beyond-the-fear-of-death/. 26 January 2022.
  3. Letheby, C., 2021. Philosophy of psychedelics. Oxford University Press.
  4. Watts, A.W., 1962. The joyous cosmology. New York: Pantheon.
  5. Pollan, M. 2015. The trip treatment. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/02/09/trip-treatment. 26 January 2022.
  6. Barrett, F.S. and Griffiths, R.R., 2017. Classic hallucinogens and mystical experiences: phenomenology and neural correlates. Behavioral neurobiology of psychedelic drugs, pp.393-430.
  7. Glausser, W., 2021. Psychedelic Drugs and Atheism: Debunking the Myths. Religions12(8), p.614.
  8. Petersen, R., 2019. Taking mushrooms for depression cured me of my atheism. The Outline. https://theoutline.com/post/7367/taking-mushrooms-for-depression-cured-me-of-my-atheism. 2 February 2022.
  9. Timmermann, C., Kettner, H., Letheby, C., Roseman, L., Rosas, F.E. and Carhart-Harris, R.L., 2021. Psychedelics alter metaphysical beliefs. Scientific reports11(1), pp.1-13.
  10. Bogenschutz, M.P., Podrebarac, S.K., Duane, J.H., Amegadzie, S.S., Malone, T.C., Owens, L.T., Ross, S. and Mennenga, S.E., 2018. Clinical interpretations of patient experience in a trial of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for alcohol use disorder. Frontiers in pharmacology9, p.100.
  11. Breeksema, J.J., Niemeijer, A.R., Krediet, E., Vermetten, E. and Schoevers, R.A., 2020. Psychedelic treatments for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of patient experiences in qualitative studies. CNS drugs, pp.1-22.
  12. Pollan, M., 2018. How to change your mind: the new science of psychedelics, p. 284. Penguin.
  13. Nour, M.M., Evans, L., Nutt, D. and Carhart-Harris, R.L., 2016. Ego-dissolution and psychedelics: validation of the ego-dissolution inventory (EDI). Frontiers in human neuroscience10, p.269.
  14. Dozois, D.J. and Rnic, K., 2015. Core beliefs and self-schematic structure in depression. Current Opinion in Psychology4, pp.98-103.
  15. McConnell, D. and Snoek, A., 2018. The importance of self-narration in recovery from addiction. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology25(3), pp.E-31.
  16. Davis, A.K., Barrett, F.S. and Griffiths, R.R., 2020. Psychological flexibility mediates the relations between acute psychedelic effects and subjective decreases in depression and anxiety. Journal of contextual behavioral science15, pp.39-45.
  17. Mian, M.N., Altman, B.R. and Earleywine, M., 2020. Ayahuasca’s antidepressant effects covary with behavioral activation as well as mindfulness. Journal of psychoactive drugs52(2), pp.130-137.
  18. Davey, C.G. and Harrison, B.J., 2018. The brain’s center of gravity: how the default mode network helps us to understand the self. World Psychiatry17(3), p.278.
  19. Noorani, T., Garcia-Romeu, A., Swift, T.C., Griffiths, R.R. and Johnson, M.W., 2018. Psychedelic therapy for smoking cessation: qualitative analysis of participant accounts. Journal of Psychopharmacology32(7), pp.756-769.
  20. Amada N, Lea T, Letheby C, Shane J. Psychedelic Experience and the Narrative Self: An Exploratory Qualitative Study. Journal of Consciousness Studies. 2020 Jan 1;27(9-10):6-33.
  21. Metzinger, T., 2003. Being no one: The self-model theory of subjectivity. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
  22. Gasser, P., Holstein, D., Michel, Y., Doblin, R., Yazar-Klosinski, B., Passie, T. and Brenneisen, R., 2014. Safety and efficacy of lysergic acid diethylamide-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with life-threatening diseases. The Journal of nervous and mental disease202(7), p.513.
  23. Gasser P, Kirchner K, Passie T. LSD-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with a life-threatening disease: a qualitative study of acute and sustained subjective effects. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2015 Jan;29(1):57-68.
Please register HERE.

The APT – Augmented Psychotherapy Training is a major professional training course on the platform of the MIND Foundation’s Academy. This online info meetup on ZOOM will provide you with ADDITIONAL information and help to answer questions after you have read the program description on the MIND Website (we strongly recommend reading the FAQs, too).
The APT training will provide you with the knowledge and skills to use legally available tools to augment your psychotherapeutic practice today – and get ready for new psychedelic pharmaceuticals that will be available in a few years, if studies deliver on their promise.
The meetup will be moderated by one or two people from the training faculty. You are very welcomed to ask your questions!

APT is an advanced training course for medical doctors, psychotherapists, and complementary mental health professionals.

Please register HERE.


Bitte hier registrieren

Das APT – Augmented Psychotherapy Training ist eine professionelle Weiterbildung der MIND Academy. Dieses Online-Meetup auf ZOOM bietet Ihnen ZUSÄTZLICHE Informationen und hilft bei der Beantwortung von Fragen, nachdem Sie die Programmbeschreibung auf der MIND-Website gelesen haben (wir empfehlen dringend, auch die FAQs zu lesen). Wir arbeiten daran diese Beschreibung auch ins Deutsche zu übersetzen.
Das APT-Training wird Sie mit dem Wissen und den Fähigkeiten ausstatten, legal verfügbare Werkzeuge zur Erweiterung (“Augmentierung”) Ihre psychotherapeutischen Praxis zu zu nutzen. Sie lernen mit dem atypischen Psychedelikum Ketamin einen psychotherapeutischen Prozess zu gestalten – und sich auf die neuen psychedelische Arzneimittel vorzubereiten, die in einigen Jahren verfügbar sein werden, wenn die laufenden Studien ihre Versprechen halten.
Das Meetup wird von ein oder zwei Personen aus dem Ausbildungsteam moderiert. Sie sind herzlich willkommen, Ihre Fragen zu stellen!

APT ist eine Weiterbildung für Mediziner, Psychotherapeuten und komplementärmedizinische Heilberufe.

Bitte hier registrieren


Bitte hier registrieren

Das APT – Augmented Psychotherapy Training ist eine professionelle Weiterbildung der MIND Academy. Dieses Online-Meetup auf ZOOM bietet Ihnen ZUSÄTZLICHE Informationen und hilft bei der Beantwortung von Fragen, nachdem Sie die Programmbeschreibung auf der MIND-Website gelesen haben (wir empfehlen dringend, auch die FAQs zu lesen). Wir arbeiten daran diese Beschreibung auch ins Deutsche zu übersetzen.
Das APT-Training wird Sie mit dem Wissen und den Fähigkeiten ausstatten, legal verfügbare Werkzeuge zur Erweiterung (“Augmentierung”) Ihre psychotherapeutischen Praxis zu zu nutzen. Sie lernen mit dem atypischen Psychedelikum Ketamin einen psychotherapeutischen Prozess zu gestalten – und sich auf die neuen psychedelische Arzneimittel vorzubereiten, die in einigen Jahren verfügbar sein werden, wenn die laufenden Studien ihre Versprechen halten.
Das Meetup wird von ein oder zwei Personen aus dem Ausbildungsteam moderiert. Sie sind herzlich willkommen, Ihre Fragen zu stellen!

APT ist eine Weiterbildung für Mediziner, Psychotherapeuten und komplementärmedizinische Heilberufe.

Bitte hier registrieren

Join us for the third uniMIND Central Session with James B. Close and Julia Bornemann to discuss their research article Co-design of Guidance for Patient and Public Involvement in Psychedelic Research, Front. Psychiatry, 30 September 2021.

***

The uniMIND Program

uniMIND is the MIND Foundation’s international journal club network. With more than 25 groups at universities worldwide, uniMIND provides a well-connected platform for intellectual exchange and mutual academic support in the field of psychedelic research. To learn more about uniMIND, to join or start a group, visit our uniMIND page.

We also recommend connecting to our uniMIND community on the MIND Community Platform. Here we schedule events, discuss feedback and ideas, and more.

***

uniMIND Central Sessions

Monthly web-based journal club meetings, open to everyone in and around the uniMIND community. We invite academic authors to discuss their very own publications with us.

For every session, there will be one selected text that we share here in the event description. Please make sure to read the article in advance, prepare questions and feedback. Having the authors present at our sessions can be a huge benefit in your understanding of the text and its context.

The uniMIND Central Sessions discussion format is a semi-structured conversational exchange. It is facilitated by the session host and open to input and questions from guests at any given time.

Download the Article here

 

Join here: https://zoom.us/j/95125702690